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Monday, 30 November 2015 06:25

TEACHING OF ENGLISH



TEACHING OF ENGLISH
1. What is the status of English language in the context of our Indian education system ? Discuss the role of the English teacher in this context giving suitable examples.

2. Out of the four skills of language, which one do you think is most important ? Give a reasoned answer bringing out the objectives of teaching English in India.

3. What is the meaning of Efficient Reading ? Discuss. Explain the characteristics of reading and their implications for the teacher of English language.

4. Distinguish between intensive reading and extensive reading. Discuss the learning objectives of intensive reading in detail.

5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each :
(i) Mention at least four different kinds of listening activities which can be used in the classroom for teaching listening skills. Describe any one of them in detail.
(ii) Mention at least four different kinds of Speaking Activities that can be used in the classroom for teaching speaking skills. Describe any one of them in detail.
(iii) Distinguish between study skills and linguistic skills. What is the role of study skills in the English curriculum ?
(iv) Distinguish between formal and functional grammar. Which one is more useful in language teaching and why ?
(v) Discuss the pedagogic principles of 'Structural oral situational method' in language teaching.
(vi) Write a note on different kinds of vocabularies and their implications for the teaching of vocabulary.

6. What are the essential components of a lesson plan ? Discuss the weak and strong points of any one lesson-plan which you must have prepared during teaching at Secondary level.

1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
What are the unique individual characteristics of the learner that influence learning ? Discuss these in the context of teaching English as a second language.

2. What is a cognitive style ? Discuss the cognitive styles important for developing communicative skills in second language learning.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
What do you understand by `method' of teaching language ? Discuss the relationship between approach, method and techniques of language teaching using a suitable example.

4. What are the important components of a lesson plan ? Discuss your answer by illustrating instructional objectives for a poetry lesson for any class you teach.

5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each :
(i) What are the three kinds of listening materials that can be used by a teacher ? List one advantage and one disadvantage; of each material.
(ii) Write at least four characteristics of an effective oral skills lesson.
(iii) What is alexia and how does it affect one's reading ability ?
(iv) What are `signpost' questions ?
(v) Frame two test items for testing reading comprehension.
(vi) What is the significance of vocabulary games ?

6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Discuss the methods of marking composition with suitable examples.

1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
What is the relationship between the need for learning a language and its teaching objectives ? Explain with an example from teaching of English as a second language.



2. `Learners have different cognitive styles.' How is this observation useful for classroom teachers ? Give examples from teaching of English as a second language.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
What are the major differences between learning Ll and L2 .? Discuss the different contexts in which children formally learn certain language skills.

4. In the context of learning language, discuss the role of integrative and instrumental motivation. Give suitable examples to illustrate your answer.

5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each :
(i) List down three features of a good listening task.
(ii) In order to teach conversation skills, why is it important to understand the differences between speech and writing ?
(iii) How can a teacher use dictation for story-telling and developing learners' speech skills ?
(iv) List down the major skills needed to write a good summary.
(v) What aspects of writing should be given importance to at the secondary level ?
(vi) Frame a multiple choice item to test your learners' knowledge of grammar.
6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Discuss the differences between discrete and integrated items given to test the grammatical competence of learners. Give an example from each to illustrate your answer.

1. Mention three major approaches to English Language teaching. Which one do you think is the best and why ?

2. What is the place of English in Indian society ? Discuss, bringing out the implications for teachers of English in this context.

3. Name the four skills of language. Which one do you think is the most important in the context of teaching-learning English in India ? Give a reasoned answer arriving at the objectives of teaching English in India.

4. Discuss the characteristics of Reading and its implications for the Reading teacher.

5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each :
(i) What are the three phases of a listening class_ ? Discuss any one of them.
(ii) Discuss the characteristics of an effective oral skills lesson.
(iii) List the nine areas in which a writer needs. some competence according to Anita Pincas. Explain any one of them in detail, giving examples.
(iv) What is the place of grammar in language learning ? Discuss, bringing out the changing approach to grammar in recent times.
(v) How will you develop, study skills among your students, as an English teacher ? Give examples.
(vi) Mention at least four reading problems and write a detailed note on any one of them.

6. What is a lesson plan ? Describe, giving examples, the role of a lesson plan for an effective English class.

1. The communicative approach to language teaching is the best one to be followed by the teachers of English. Do you agree ? Give a reasoned answer bringing out the differences in the different approaches.

2. English is seen differently as a first language, a second language and an international language. What are the implications of these three positions for a teacher of English ? Discuss bringing out the need and importance of English in the Indian society and classroom.

3. It is through books that one acquires knowledge, for which one needs to be proficient in reading. Do you think reading is the most important language skill ? Give a reasoned answer bringing out the implications for a teacher of English.

4. Describe in detail the objectives of a reading programme. Are you able to implement all the objectives in the classroom ? Discuss.

5. Answer the following in about 150 words each :
(i) Mention at least four kinds of listening activities and describe any one of them in detail.
(ii) Mention at least four kinds of speaking activities and describe any one of them in detail.
(iii) Mention at least four kinds of writing activities and describe any one of them in detail.
(iv) Mention three types of study skills and describe any one of them in detail.
(v) What are the advantages of grammar games in teaching grammar ? Describe one game.
(vi) Write a note on Integrated Grammar Tasks.

6. Choose any topic in any area from your English class and develop a lesson plan. Mention the class and topic you have chosen clearly.

Published in B.ED
Monday, 30 November 2015 06:18

EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY




EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Define the term `Educational technology'. Describe its scope and noteworthy applications in the field of education in India, giving concrete examples from your experiences.

2. "The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) is an apt example of an ET project at the macro level." Justify this statement highlighting the origin, need, objectives, programme inputs, instructional materials and delivery mechanisms of NIOS. Also suggest how we can expand and sharpen the open schooling system in India.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Explain Context Input Process and Product (CIPP) model of evaluation. Discuss the components of this model in the context of decision-making with regard to the effectiveness of an ET project.

4. Analyse the nature of 'experience' as opposed to `observation', and explain the concept of `experiential learning'. Discuss the teaching strategies that facilitate experiential learning.

5. Answer the following in about 150 words each ;
(i) Why should we lay emphasis on teaching `thinking skills' to our students in schools ? Explain such skilis with suitable examples.
(ii) Explain the meaning of the term 'Management'. Describe the five major functions of management in the context of goals of educational technology.
(iii) List the strengths and weaknesses of Education Radio programmes. How would you strengthen the listening of such programmes among students of your class ?
(iv) Discuss the main features of a Learning Resource Centre. How is an LRC different from a library ?
(v) What is E-Mail ? Describe its uses in distance education.
(vi) Describe the reasons for using teaching-learning aids to make instruction more effective.
(vii) Explain the meaning of the term media. Differentiate between multiple media and multimedia.

6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Suppose you have to carry out a Teleconferencing Session of 15 minutes' duration. Select a suitable topic and develop an academic brief/note. Mention all the necessary steps involved in its development,
1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Beginning with the Audio-visual phase, describe with examples the four phases of world-wide evolution of educational technology. Also discuss briefly some futuristic trends you visualize in the current phase of .ET.

2. Describe briefly the main features, delivery mechanisms and instructional strategies of open schooling in India. What suggestions would you offer to sharpen and expand the Open Schooling System ?

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
How does evaluation of ET help a teacher ? Discuss with examples the approaches and types of evaluation for educational technology programmes.



5. Answer the following in about 150 words each :
(i) Define the term `learning'. Describe the major stages involved in the process of learning.
(ii) Explain the meaning of the term 'software'. Why is it important to have a thorough knowledge of learners' needs, characteristics and conditions for designing any kind of educational software ?
(iii) List three merits and demerits each of educational TV/video programmes. How would you go about using such programmes effectively in your class ?
(iv) Describe Computer Assisted Learning (CAL). Describe the advantages and limitations of CAL.
(v) Describe `tele-conferencing'. Describe its scope in distance learning.
(vi) Discuss the special features of the printed study materials developed by N I O S and I G N O U for their learners. How are these materials different from the traditional textbooks ?
(vii) Define "Learning Experiences" and explain the principles of organising learning experiences in the class.

6 Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Select a topic of your choice. Develop a script for ETV programme of 5 - 10 minutes' duration. Mention all the steps required for the development of ETV scripts.

1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Define the term `Educational Technology'. Describe the phases through which educational technologies have evolved during the past three decades.

2. Explain the meaning and significance of teleconferencing in distance education system. Discuss the types of teleconferencing system being used in India for educational purposes.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
What is the role of media in the instructional process ? Discuss briefly the factors to be considered while selecting appropriate media for classroom instruction. Substantiate your answer with suitable example.

4. Explain the need of managing educational technology. Discuss the steps you would like to take for the effective management of educational technology.

5. Answer the following in about 150 words each :
(i) What would be the nature of future classroom ?
(ii) Discuss briefly the need and significance of open schooling in India.
(iii) Discuss briefly principles of organising learning experiences.
(iv) What is Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) ? Discuss advantages and disadvantages of using CAL in instructional process.
(v) Mention the guidelines to be followed for increasing effectiveness in chalkboard writing.
(vi) Discuss briefly how you can develop thinking skills among your students.
(vii) What is meant by visual non-projected three-dimensional media ? Discuss briefly any two of them.

6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Identify a suitable theme from your subject area of teaching for developing a video programme. Develop programme brief and academic note for this video programme.

1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
What is the meaning of `educational software' ? Discuss the principles of designing educational software for, developing knowledge, attitude and psychomotor skills at the secondary stage.

2. What is Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) ? Discuss various functions of CAL and the problems associated with its use in the instructional process.
3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Define the term `Educational Technology', Discuss various applications of educational technology in conventional and distance mode of learning.

4. Explain the meaning and significance of participatory learning. Discuss its broad features by giving an example.

5. Answer the following in about 150 words each :
(i) `Educational technology is an area of interdisciplinary study.' Explain.
(ii) What is OHP ? How can you design and prepare transparencies for OHP
(iii) What is `E-mail' ? How can it be effectively used in instructional process ?
(iv) Discuss the important guidelines to be followed while developing audio scripts.
(v) Explain integration of media with methods by giving an example.
(vi) Discuss the skills required by the learners at various stages in the process of learning.
(vii) Discuss the stages of experiential learning as given by Kolb with an example.



1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
"Defining Educational Technology as `Technology in Education' is a narrow view of ET." Expand this statement to bring out a suitable definition of ET. Also describe the scope and applications of ET in the field of education, with examples.

2. What is `open schooling' ? Describe with examples the multi-channel instructional strategies the NIOS uses to service its learners' needs.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
What is 'media selection' ? Describe its need in the context of day-to-day classroom teaching. Discuss with examples the steps you will follow while selecting and integrating media for instructional purposes.

4. "Experience holds the key to learning." Justify this statement with suitable examples from your experience as a teacher. Also explain the factors that determine the nature of experiential learning.

5. Answer the following questions. Answer each question in about 150 words :
(i) Describe the need, importance and role of Personal Contact Programmes (PCPs) in open and distance learning systems, giving examples from your own experiences as a distance learner.
(ii) What is Internet ? Describe some of its uses and applications in the ODL system.
(iii) What is a Learning Resource Centre ? Describe the kinds of resources you will recommend for setting up an ideal LRC.
(iv) What is meant by non-projected two-dimensional communication aids ? Describe the kinds and uses of such communication aids in the teaching-learning process.
(v) List the major strengths and weaknesses of audio-radio programmes. Describe how you as a teacher, will ensure effective utilization of audio-radio programmes in your class.
(vi) What is 'participatory learning' ? Explain its key characteristics as reflected in Mirambika School.
(vii) Describe with examples the five major functions of management in the context of ET.


6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
List important guidelines for developing an educational audio/radio programme script. Based on these guidelines, prepare a programme brief and develop a 10-minute educational audio/radio script on any teaching topic or theme for secondary school students.



1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
What, according to you, is `Educational Technology' ? Describe the main stages of its evolution beginning from `teaching aids' to the use of multimedia and ICT driven technologies.

2. Discuss the main factors that led to the emergence of open and distance learning systems in India citing examples of National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). Also describe in detail the distinguishing features of the NIOS.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
"Evaluation is an integral part of educational technology. " Examine this statement critically and state the rationale and purposes of evaluating an ET project. Also describe with examples the four components of C I P P model of evaluation.

4. Why do we use printed `Self-Learning Materials' (SLMs) as the principal mode of instruction for open and distance learners ? Describe the structure and main characteristics of SLMs giving illustrations from your own (B.Ed.) course materials.

5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each :
(i) Describe the need, importance and role of audio-video programmes and computer-driven inputs in open and distance learning systems, giving examples from your own experience as a distance learner.
(ii) What is teleconferencing ? Discuss the merits and demerits of audio and video conferencing.
(iii) Why will an individual, in the near future, be required to continue to learn throughout his/her life ? Explain it and clarify the concept of a `Learning Society'.
(iv) What is a chart good for ? Describe various types of charts used in day-to-day classroom teaching.
(v) List the major strengths and weaknesses of TV/Video programmes. Describe how you, as a teacher, will ensure effective utilization of TV/Video programmes in your class.
(vi) State the key principles of learning as envisaged by Sri Aurobindo. How does Mirambika School attempt to realise these principles through its programmes and activities ?
(vii) What is experiential learning ? Describe the stages in the process of experiential learning.

6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
List important guidelines for developing an educational TV/Video programme script. Based on these guidelines, prepare a programme brief and develop a 10-minute TV/Video script on any teaching topic or theme for Secondary school students.

Published in B.ED
Monday, 30 November 2015 06:04

GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING



GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
What is the need of evaluating guidance programme ? Discuss different methods of evaluation of a guidance programme.

2. Explain the various stages and tentative periods according to Ginzberg's theory in career development.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Why do we need to integrate Guidance and Curriculum ? Discuss.

4. Define Counselling. Discuss its principles and process.

5. Answer the following in about 150 words each
(i) Explain how work influences attitudes and values of an individual.
(ii) Explain the meaning of stigmatization and withdrawal. Suggest ways to deal with individuals suffering from these.
(iii) What do you understand by concept of inclusive schooling ? What are the various approaches of inclusive schooling ?
(iv) Mention the factors that lead to socio-emotional problems of the individuals with handicap. Give suitable examples.
(v) Discuss advantages and limitations of interest inventories.
(vi) Explain the concepts : Conflicting rules, Displacement and Firmness.

1. Answer the following question in about 600 words. Describe the various steps involved in Directive Counselling.


2. What practical measures are to be taken for increasing enrolment and retention of girls in schools ? Describe with suitable examples.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words. Describe techniques for behavioural management. OR

4. What is meant by standardized tests in guidance ? Describe at least four of them.

5. Answer the following in about 150 words each :
(i) What are the determinants of career patterns ?
(ii) Differentiate between class talk and career talk.
(iii) Mention the various sources and objectives to obtain occupational information. Describe briefly.
(iv) What are various types of guidance ? Illustrate with examples.
(v) Discuss teacher's role in career planning.
(vi) What are the various uses of rating scales in guidance and counselling ? Describe one of them in brief.

6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Select a handicapped student of 12 to 16 years of age. Observe his/her activities and behaviour. Discuss with them on various issues in order to know his/her attitude towards the inadequacy she/he is facing. How will you help him/her to cope with that ? Prepare a report.

1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Explain briefly the nature and concept of guidance and counselling. Discuss the principles of guidance and counselling.

2. Explain the concept of group counselling. Discuss the process of group counselling along with its advantages and limitations.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Explain the different techniques which are generally employed by guidance workers. Discuss interest inventory as a technique of guidance giving its advantages and limitations.

4. Explain the concept of career development. Discuss how gender affects career development with special reference to women in India.

5. Answer the following in about 150 words each :
(i) Explain the skills Of an effective counsellor in a school.
(ii) Discuss principles of group guidance.
(iii) Discuss role of a teacher in promoting career development of girls.
(iv) Explain briefly various types of behaviour problems in school students.
(v) Discuss the specific problems of Scheduled Tribe students.
(vi) Discuss the concept and approach of indusive schooling.
(vii) Explain the meaning and importance of cumulative record of a school child.

6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
As a teacher in a school, you would have identified a student suffering from `disrespect-defiance' as a behaviour problem. To conduct the case study of this student, mention the information needed for its planning and also explain the necessary guidance you would like to provide on the basis of the case study.

1. Explain the nature and concept of guidance. Discuss the purpose of guidance at the school level and its contribution to teachers and students.

2. Explain the meaning of counselling. Discuss major approaches to counselling.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Explain the purpose of school guidance programme. Describe various types of guidance services and its activities for secondary school students, with suitable illustrations.

4. Explain the concept and importance of career development. Discuss various stages of career development, illustrating each stage with suitable examples.

5. Answer the following in about 150 words each :
(i) Briefly explain the concept and significance of group guidance.
(ii) Explain the different guidance techniques for handling discipline problems in a school.
(iii) Discuss rating scale as a technique of guidance. Mention its limitations.
(iv) Discuss briefly the salient features of career development of girls in India.
(v) Discuss nature of behaviour problems of students in secondary schools.
(vi) Explain the concept and approach of inclusive schooling.
(vii) Explain the meaning of career conference and the guidelines to be followed while planning a conference.

6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
You are to provide occupational orientation to science students of Class X in your school. What type of information about occupational fields should you give ? Also list the methods you would use to disseminate the information.

1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
What is counselling ? Enumerate and highlight its principles and goals and mention the major approaches to counselling.

2. How would genetic inheritance, early childhood experiences and subsequent experiences lead to vocational behaviour ? Discuss this question in the context of Roe's theory of career choice.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Should the orientation programme be same for elementary, secondary and senior secondary students ? Develop an outline for orientation of students at secondary and senior secondary level for your school.

4. Enumerate the special problems of tribal education. Discuss any two schemes available to overcome the problems of tribal education. Suggest steps to be undertaken to increase enrolment, retention and achievement among tribal children.



5. Answer the following in about 150 words each :
(i) Describe types of guidance, with examples.
(ii) Why do we need to integrate guidance and counselling ?
(iii) Describe the four techniques of testing personality.
(iv) Explain the term `group guidance'. Discuss any two group guidance activities which are carried out in schools.
(v) Mention the various stages of career development given by Super.
(vi) Discuss which mode of child rearing is most effective and why.
(vii) Mention three factors that lead to the socio-emotional problems of the individuals with handicaps.
(viii) What is I.E.D.C. ? How is it different from P.I.E.D. ? 

6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
In your school, as a teacher, you have a student requiring help through counselling. Select and discuss an appropriate counselling approach that you will use to help the student.

1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
What is the role for guidance personnel in the guidance programme ? Highlight separately the specific roles of counsellors and teachers in the process of guidance programme.

2. What is 'group guidance' ? Describe any two group guidance activities.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Explain the term behaviour problem. Why should the teacher have knowledge of types of behavioural problems ? Discuss any five behavioural modification techniques a teacher can use for students.

4. What is the general perception of normal person towards person with handicap ? Mention three factors that lead to the socio-emotional problems of the individual with handicap. Discuss two main goals of intervention for individuals with physical handicap.

5. Write short notes or/Answer of the following. in about 150 words each :
(i)Purpose and scope of guidance.
(ii) Resistance and counter will in the context of counselling.
(iii) List various types of rating-scales. Describe one of them in brief.
(iv) Explain any two methods of classification of occupational information with relevant examples taken from a school.
(v) What is the role of teachers in the career planning of their students ?
{vi) Which three things can a teacher do to promote career development of girls ?
(vii) How can parents help their children cope with their behaviour problems ?
(viii) Mention any two curriculum modifications that may lead to greater girl enrolment and retention in schools.

6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Suppose you are a counsellor and plan to make an evaluation of the guidance services in your school. Discuss the same specifying the objectives and procedures.

1. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Explain the nature of guidance. Discuss the purpose and scope of guidance giving suitable examples.


2. Differentiate between guidance and counselling. Discuss the stages of counselling process.

3. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
Explain the meaning and importance of career development. Describe the stages of the process of career development as given by Super (1957).

4. Explain the nature of behaviour problems of children. Discuss the causes of behavioural problems giving suitable examples.

5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each :
(i) Discuss advantages and limitations of group counselling.
(ii) Explain the integration of guidance with school curriculum.
(iii) Describe the role of teachers as guidance personnel.
(iv) Discuss the methods of dissemination of occupational information in schools.
(v) Describe the types of career patterns of women with suitable examples.
(vi) Explain the concept and approaches of Inclusive Education.
(vii) Explain the concept of aptitude and meaning of aptitude test.
(viii) Discuss any three psychological factors which facilitate classroom learning.

6. Answer the following question in about 600 words.
The Principal of your school wants you to introduce guidance programme in the school. Which services will you organise for the students of IX and X grades ? Discuss various activities under any one guidance service considered for the guidance programme.

Published in B.ED
Monday, 30 November 2015 05:58

Education and society papers

EDUCATION AND ITS NATURE
QUESTION:-
1. Prepare lists of educational aims for different levels of school education. Compare your aims with aims of education in a democratic set-up. Also, find out in what ways these aims can take care of individual and social interests.
2. The spiritual, developmental and the social mould of education are actually
complementary to each other. Comment.
3. Find out how school education today helps individual development and social progress.
4. Do you feel that education in India today has been able to strike the right balance
between coercion, persuasion and modelling? How?

AGENClES OF EDUCATION
QUESTION:-
1. Visit a nearby home and discuss with parents how they are contributing to the education
of their children. Evaluate the behaviour of parents in the light of their understanding
of their children.
2. Visit a school in your vicinity and discuss with teachers and students the various
activities being organised which facilitate children's growth and development.
3. List the different kinds of, media available in the cornrnunity/school and evaluate whether
these are properly and adequately being, utilized for children's education.

PHILOSOPHICAL BASIS OF EDUCATION
QUESTION:-
1. What is Plato's conception of curriculum? How can its elements be brought into
modern curriculum construction?
2. Do you think philosophical basis is inherent in modern Indian education? Discuss with
the help of your experiences as a teacher.
3. How important is the study of philosophy of education for a teacher? How does it help
to solve the day-to-day problems that the teacher faces in the classroom?
4. Collect material on the life of eminent philosophers, and analyse how their ideas and
thoughts have been affected by their circumstances.
5. How much is experience important for the educand and the educator? Is experience the
basis of all knowledge and learning?
6. As a teacher, what do you feel would be the optimum philosophical combination in a
modern teacher-learning situation?


DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES IN EDUCATION
QUESTION:-
1. Keeping in view the present status of democracy in India, suggest some ways and
means of qualitative democratization of education.
2. What are your suggestions for introducing the true spirit of democracy in our educational institutions?
3. What should be the role of teachers and students in the "Education for All" Project?
How Fan every member of the educated community assist in making this programme
a success?
4. How can students' participation in the management of school and colleges be made
maximally useful?
5. How can our schools train students in citizenship?
6. Collect materials pertaining to Total Literacy Campaigns in the country. Suggest ways
of making these programmes more effective.

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